The ternary lithium battery is a kind of nickel and cobalt elements as the anode material, manganese salt or aluminum salt to the stable chemical structure of lithium battery, nickel of these can improve the activity of material and energy density, so its content proportion is different, produce the battery energy density is not the same, but the higher the proportion of it, the whole battery energy density is higher. Cobalt in the cathode of the ternary lithium battery can stabilize the layered structure of the material, while manganese can play a supporting role and provide stability during charging and discharging.
We often heard of 523 battery, 622 battery is under nickel cobalt manganese(NCM) three kinds of material proportion to name, the current three lithium battery technology route in the positive electrode of three kinds of material proportion adjustment is the main direction, as long as the battery cathode material nickel to raise a little bit, the battery storage of electricity is more than a point. Thus "532" to "622" are obsolete. They have even developed what they call an "811" battery: a ternary lithium battery with an 8:1:1 ratio of nickel-cobalt-aluminum or nickel-cobalt-manganese in the anode material, which could be used on a large scale in the next two or three years.
Nickel high proportion, at the same time, means that the material stable role of cobalt and manganese ratio decreases, the reduction of the two elements reduces the stability and security of the battery, the battery anode thermal stability becomes worse, easy to cause thermal runaway, and in case of high temperature and external shocks, and so on, high nickel batteries are more likely to cause detonation; Because of the decrease of stability and safety, the endurance shrinkage of high nickel ternary lithium battery is more obvious.
Why is "cobalt-free" so popular?
Cobalt, symbol Co, located in the fourth cycle in the periodic table, the first Ⅷ, atomic number 27. Cobalt is the most important raw material for ternary lithium batteries. Half of the world's cobalt reserves are in the democratic republic of Congo.
The booming demand for batteries in this strategic mine has driven up the price of cobalt, which in recent months has reached an all-time high near 58k USD a tonne in international trade.
Except your cobalt is not new energy vehicles to promote "green" two characters: bright cobalt ore containing arsenic, is one of the world health organization's international agency for research on cancer (IARC) released a kind of carcinogen, the compound arsenic trioxide is often said of our ancient arsenic, Congo where the miners are fundamental in the case of unprotected manual mining, degree of danger.
At present, "cobalt-free" batteries are technically difficult to manufacture, and even if mass-produced, their safety is hard to convince. However, a cobalt-free battery is no cobalt, so all batteries without cobalt can be called the cobalt-free battery.
In addition to BYD's iron phosphate lithium battery, you can take out the lead-acid battery on the electric tricycle at home, you can also reasonably say: this is a cobalt-free battery.